- Immigrants enter Canada through either family reunification or entry based on importing skilled workers, entrepreneurs or investors.
- In 2000, 35% of women entered under family reunification, and 38% were dependents under the principal applicant.
- There is a 20% gap in earnings between immigrant women and non-immigrant women, twice as much as the gap between men. This gap exists even 10 years after immigration.
- Entry into a country is often conditional on the immigrant committing to the fact that neither they or their family members will claim any welfare benefits. Studies show that caregivers worry that they will be deported if they do not fulfill their duties as caregivers. Therefore, they perceive the need to hire outside help as failure.
- It can be difficult for immigrants to find work appropriate for their level of education, especially since foreign institutions are not always recognized in Canada.
Yuval-Davis, Nira, “Women, Citizenship and Difference” Feminist Review 57 (1997), pp. 4-27.